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IP: 130.88.0.*   JANEWANGJK55 发表了评论   2015-11-5 14:38
bicistronic (adj.)
(genetics) Having or involving two cistrons, loci responsible for generating a protein
bicistronic transcription

cistron (n.)
Sometimes used interchangeably with the word gene, a cistron is the unit of hereditary material (e.g. DNA) that encodes one protein.
IP: 130.88.0.*   JANEWANGJK55 发表了评论   2015-11-5 14:42
Heterologous (meaning 'derived from a different organism') refers to the fact that often the transferred protein was initially cloned from or derived from a different cell type or a different species from the recipient.

Propagation can refer to:

Reproduction, and other forms of multiplication or increase
Plant propagation, the production of more plants by seeds, cuttings, grafting or other methods
Propagation of schema, in artificial reproduction
Wave propagation, The motion of a wave throughout a medium or the transfer of its energy
Crack propagation, The motion of the crack tip or the crack front during the fracture of materials
Radio propagation, the application of wave propagation to radio communications
Software propagation, the distribution of free software in a manner explicitly permitted under the applicable license
IP: 130.88.0.*   JANEWANGJK55 发表了评论   2015-11-5 14:52
excluding or not admitting other things.
"an exclusive focus on success and making money"
synonyms:        complete, full, entire, whole, total, absolute; to the exclusion of everything else
"his exclusive concern with himself"
restricted to the person, group, or area concerned.
"the couple had exclusive possession of the flat"
synonyms:        sole, undivided, unshared, unique, only, individual, personal, private, single, especial; dedicated
"I have reserved a room for your exclusive use"
an item or story published or broadcast by only one source.
synonyms:        scoop, exposé, revelation, special, inside story; coup
"the magazine's six-page exclusive"
IP: 130.88.0.*   JANEWANGJK55 发表了评论   2015-11-5 15:46
In logic and probability theory, two propositions (or events) are mutually exclusive or disjoint if they cannot both be true (occur). A clear example is the set of outcomes of a single coin toss, which can result in either heads or tails, but not both.

As an adjective, obligate means "by necessity" (antonym facultative) and is used mainly in biology in phrases such as: Obligate aerobe, an organism that cannot survive without oxygen. Obligate anaerobe, an organism that cannot survive in the presence of oxygen.

Obligate intracellular parasites cannot reproduce outside their host cell, meaning that the parasite's reproduction is entirely reliant on intracellular resources. Obligate intracellular parasites of humans include: viruses. Certain bacteria, including: Chlamydia, and closely related species.
IP: 130.88.0.*   JANEWANGJK55 发表了评论   2015-11-5 20:47
past tense: withstood; past participle: withstood
remain undamaged or unaffected by; resist.
"the structure had been designed to withstand winds of more than 100 mph"
synonyms:        resist, hold out against, stand firm against, stand/hold one's ground against, bear up against, hold the line against, persevere in the face of, stand up to, fight, combat, grapple with, oppose, face, confront, defy, brave; More
offer strong resistance or opposition to.
"Constantinople withstood the eastern invaders
IP: 130.88.0.*   JANEWANGJK55 发表了评论   2015-11-5 20:54
past tense: deciphered; past participle: deciphered
convert (a text written in code, or a coded signal) into normal language.
"authorized government agencies can decipher encrypted telecommunications"
synonyms:        decode, decrypt, break, work out, solve, interpret, translate, construe, explain; More
succeed in understanding, interpreting, or identifying (something).
"visual signals help us decipher what is being communicated"
synonyms:        make out, discern, perceive, see, read, follow, fathom, penetrate, make sense of, interpret, understand, comprehend, apprehend, grasp; More
IP: 130.88.0.*   JANEWANGJK55 发表了评论   2015-11-5 23:15
recognize or find out.
"I can discern no difference between the two policies"
distinguish (someone or something) with difficulty by sight or with the other senses.
"she could faintly discern the shape of a skull"
synonyms:        perceive, make out, pick out, detect, recognize, notice, observe, see, spot; More
IP: 130.88.0.*   JANEWANGJK55 发表了评论   2015-11-5 23:25
3rd person present: ensues
happen or occur afterwards or as a result.
"the difficulties which ensued from their commitment to Cuba"
synonyms:        result, follow, develop, stem, spring, arise, derive, evolve, proceed, emerge, emanate, issue, flow; More
IP: 130.88.0.*   JANEWANGJK55 发表了评论   2015-11-6 09:18
labor intensive

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